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Multi-level framework of push-pull entrepreneurship

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dc.contributor.author Zgheib, Philippe
dc.date.accessioned 2018-09-26T08:42:14Z
dc.date.available 2018-09-26T08:42:14Z
dc.date.copyright 2018 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1355-2554 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10725/8519 en_US
dc.description.abstract Purpose American and Lebanese women may feel they have different needs and therefore have different wants. This distinction brings to the fore the importance of an integrative analysis of forced and voluntary (push-pull) factors that influence entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to compare Lebanese and American women to determine their push-pull drive for entrepreneurship. Background: women entrepreneurship is developing in various cultural settings internationally as well as domestically. This research paper attempts to address the inference of autonomy, creativity, and non-conformity in comparing American and Lebanese women entrepreneurs with respect to the push-pull framework of entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach An interpretive analysis of 102 extensive in-depth interviews with women entrepreneurs from the USA and Lebanon allows the exploration of the relevance and salience of the proposed push-pull gender related entrepreneurship framework. Contrasting American and Lebanese women responses explains why the number and rate of women entrepreneurs is greater in the USA than in the Arab world, and attempts to answer why American women are more entrepreneurial and how the environment impacts them. Findings Emerging patterns of female business entrepreneurship in this analysis demonstrate that forced push entrepreneurship is more prevalent among women from a developing economy such as Lebanon than in industrially advanced USA. By contrast voluntary pull entrepreneurship claims more global validity as discovered in the US business culture. Entrepreneurial dimensions analyzed include autonomy, creativity, and non-conformity. Originality/value The dynamic interplay of micro, meso, and macro levels of the integrated framework of gender entrepreneurship is taken into further depth by exploring the gender autonomy debate, and highlighting creativity and non-conformity within the push-pull framework of entrepreneurship. This research contributes to reach scopes of practice and research. At the practice level the results show that the economic need is more than the self-satisfaction need to the initiation of new start-up business enterprises for Lebanese women compared to American women. This research sheds a new light on the balancing act of women entrepreneurs between tradition and modernity, between Oriental and Western cultures, and between Americans and Lebanese Arabs. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.title Multi-level framework of push-pull entrepreneurship en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.version Published en_US
dc.title.subtitle comparing American and Lebanese women en_US
dc.author.school SOB en_US
dc.author.idnumber 201200959 en_US
dc.author.department Department of Management Studies (MNGT) en_US
dc.description.embargo N/A en_US
dc.relation.journal International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research en_US
dc.journal.volume 24 en_US
dc.journal.issue 3 en_US
dc.article.pages 768-786 en_US
dc.keywords Creativity en_US
dc.keywords Autonomy en_US
dc.keywords Contrast en_US
dc.keywords Entrepreneurship en_US
dc.keywords Conformity en_US
dc.keywords Eccentricity push-pull en_US
dc.keywords American women en_US
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2015-0314 en_US
dc.identifier.ctation Zgheib, P. (2018). Multi-level framework of push-pull entrepreneurship: comparing American and Lebanese women. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 24(3), 768-786. en_US
dc.author.email philippe.zgheib@lau.edu.lb en_US
dc.identifier.tou http://libraries.lau.edu.lb/research/laur/terms-of-use/articles.php en_US
dc.identifier.url https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2015-0314 en_US
dc.author.affiliation Lebanese American University en_US


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