Reliability of high strain ionomeric polymer transducers fabricated using the direct assembly process

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dc.contributor.author Akle, Barbar
dc.contributor.author Nawshin, Saila
dc.contributor.author Leo, Donald
dc.date.accessioned 2016-10-13T06:36:33Z
dc.date.available 2016-10-13T06:36:33Z
dc.date.copyright 2007 en_US
dc.date.issued 2016-10-13
dc.identifier.issn 0964-1726 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10725/4581
dc.description.abstract Ionomeric polymer transducers have received considerable attention in the past several years. These actuators, sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, have the ability to generate large bending strain and moderate stress at low applied voltages. As sensors, ionic polymer transducers generate an electric response due to mechanical strain. Typically, ionic polymer transducers are composed of Nafion-117 membranes with platinum electrodes and are saturated with water diluents. Recently the authors have developed a novel fabrication technique called the direct assembly process (DAP), which allowed improved control of the electrode morphology and composition. The DAP consists of spraying two high surface area metal–ionomer electrodes on a Nafion membrane. The benefits of the DAP process over previous methods is the ability to control the thickness of the electrode, the ability to control the composition of the electrode layer of the transducer, and the ability for it to be used with a wide variety of diluents. In past work we have demonstrated that platinum, ruthenium dioxide, and single-walled carbon nanotubes can be used as electrode material with diluents such as water, formamide, and ionic liquids. In this work we will present a reliability study of transducers fabricated using the DAP. Water-hydrated transducers dehydrate and stop moving within 5 min while operating in air under the application of ± 2 V. Ionic liquid based transducers are demonstrated to operate in air for over 400 000 cycles with little loss in performance, and are reliable up to 1 million cycles with a performance loss of less than 43%. The main source of degradation is the adhesion of the conductive surface to the high surface area electrode. This is enhanced in this study by using a PUU linking polymer that has good adhesion properties to gold. Large voltage and large strain are proven to decrease the life of the transducer. Formamide based samples are stable for 3 days under a 1 V actuation signal, while they are only reliable for 3–4 h under a 2 V actuation signal. Solvent evaporation is the main reason for degradation in formamide samples and it is increased at 2 V, indicating some electrochemical activity at such high voltages. Finally the initial drop in performance and the fluctuation in the generated strain are shown to be due to the loss of humidity absorbed from ambient air and the fluctuation in this ambient humidity, respectively. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.title Reliability of high strain ionomeric polymer transducers fabricated using the direct assembly process en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.version Published en_US
dc.author.school SOE en_US
dc.author.idnumber 200700940 en_US
dc.author.department Industrial And Mechanical Engineering en_US
dc.description.embargo N/A en_US
dc.relation.journal Smart Materials and Structures en_US
dc.journal.volume 16 en_US
dc.journal.issue 2 en_US
dc.article.pages S256–S261 en_US
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/16/2/S09 en_US
dc.identifier.ctation Akle, B., Nawshin, S., & Leo, D. (2007). Reliability of high strain ionomeric polymer transducers fabricated using the direct assembly process. Smart Materials and Structures, 16(2), S256. en_US
dc.author.email barbar.akle@lau.edu.lb en_US
dc.identifier.tou http://libraries.lau.edu.lb/research/laur/terms-of-use/articles.php en_US
dc.identifier.url http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0964-1726/16/2/S09/meta en_US

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